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Joint geometry design optimization

The design of the joint site structure is one of the most important aspects of the friction welding process. With the aid of the predictive simulation in virtua RFW you can specifically analyze design variants and assess them with respect to quality determining criteria such as:

  • Cooling times of material points in the heat affected zone (e.g. t85-times for assessment of hardness and microstructure)

  • Partitioning of the frictional heat on the two friction welding work pieces (asymmetric heat consumption is an  indicator for the formation of  secondary flashes, for instance)

  • Energy consumption of the welding process

  • Notch radii detection of the weld flash

  • Size of the weld area

  • Process time, total upset, etc.

Process parameter optimization

The complex interrelation of the process parameters, such as the force, torque, feed and rotational speed at friction welding underline the requirement of profound experience and a multitude of experiments for an optimized parametrization  of the process. The process simulation in virtua RFW supports the process engineer in both, amplification of the process understanding and decreasing the experimental effort in identifying optimized process parameters at friction welding. Fields of applications are:

  • Pre-iteration of suitable process parameter settings in advance of experiments

  • Identification of shortening rates as a function of rotational speed, axial force and process time

  • Decreasing the peak torques for a reduced clamping jig and machine load

  • Sensitivity study on force build-up times and braking time of the spindle

  • Analysis of elastic machine compliances on the feed triggers

Quality assurance

Simulative studies are an essential tool for the prediction and avoidance of failure modes and inferior quality. Support your FMEA process by using virtua RFW to

  • avoid loose flash residuals and sharp notches in the weld zone

  • reduce undesired plastic deformation of the work pieces

  • test the support effect of clamping jigs and counter holders

  • verify the force flux and inner stresses in the work pieces during friction welding

  • prevent invalid annealing of pre-hardened surfaces due to the welding heat

  • assess the process robustness by performing a simulative process capability analysis

Technology development

Innovative ideas base upon unconventional, novel process characteristics, which in case of RFW are primarily resembled by the joint geometry design and the process parameter runs.

Set your creativity free,  sketch and test complete new process concepts in virtua RFW!

Self-Centered Friction Welding 

The Self-Centered Friction Welding process   (SCFW) is known from high-end applications within the transmission and powertrain and sets new landmarks in position accuracy of friction welded components. The tapered joint angle allows for an self-alignment of the parent parts, which gives an unprecedented run-out precision of the welded compound. At the same time a large joint interface with small space requirements is achieved, which is in particular favorable for shaft-hub joints of all kinds.


The process simulation in virtua RFW  for the first time allows for an simulation-aided joint design and development of this innovative process and thus enables many further future applications as seen in the animation below!

Video courtesy of IFA Group.

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